Vocabolario

La Parola del Giorno

La Parola del Giorno

Vocabulary:

alba sf dawn, sunrise, daybreak
allegro agg happy, joyful, cheerful, merry
allorché cong when, as soon as
altri agg pl other
angolo sm angle
avere vt to have
infinitive (infinito)
aveva vt was having, had
aveva is the 3rd personal singular imperfect indicative (3° persona singolare dell’indicativo imperfetto) of the verb avere = to have
lui aveva un lavoro= he had a job
avevo vt I was having, I had, I would have, I used to have
avevo is the 1st personal singular imperfect indicative (3° persona singolare dell’indicativo imperfetto) of the verb avere = to have
avevo sempre un libro con me = I always had a book with me
avrebbe v. he/she/it would have
avrebbe is the 3rd person singular present conditional (3° persona singolare del condizionale presente) of the verb avere = to have
qualcuno avrebbe dovuto dirtelo = someone should have told you
azzurro agg. m s. blue
azzurro sm. s. blue
bambini sm. pl. children
sono il padre di due bambini = I am the father of two children
bene avv. well
C’era una volta una dolce bambina, e tutti le volevano bene. = Once upon a time there was a sweet little girl and everyone loved her.
canto sm. song
capinera sf. blackcap
carcerata agg. imprisoned
carcerata is the past participle (il participio passato) of the verb (il verbo) carcere (to imprison) being used as an adjective (aggettivo).
una donna carcerata per aver ucciso marito = a woman imprisoned for killing her husband
. . . capace di ricostruire la vita di una persona carcerata = . . . able to rebuild the life of an imprisoned person
cari agg. m. pl. dear
cattiva agg. f. si. bad, evil, wicked
miei cari figli = my dear children
cercava vi. & vt. tried, sought
cercava is the 3rd person singular imperfect indicative (3° persona singolare dell’indicativo imperfetto) of the verb cercare= to try, to seek
Carabiniere travolto mentre cercava di aiutare automobilisti. = Policeman overwhelmed while trying to help motorists.
che pron. that
il libro che è sul tavolo = the book that is on the table
chiusa agg. f. closed, locked, shut
ci ogg diretto us
cielo sm. s. sky
cinguettavano vi. sang, were singing, chirruped
cinguettavano is the 3rd person singular imperfect indicative (3° persona singolare dell’indicativo imperfetto) of the verb cinguettare = to twitter, chirp, tweet, warble, sing, chirrup
Gli uccelli cinguettavano sugli alberi. = The birds were singing in the trees.
col prep. + art. with the
When the preposition ‘con’ is followed by the definite article ‘il’, the preposition and the article may be combined to form one word: ‘col’.
Posso uscire col permesso dei miei genitori. = I can go out with the permission of my parents.
con prep. with
cortiglio sm. si. courtyard
cortile sm. si. courtyard
custodi sm. pl. wardens, gaolers, jailers, custodians, guards
i custodi della notte = the guardians of the night
degli prep. & art. m. pl. of the, from the, about the
del prep. & art. m. si. of the, from the, about the
della prep & art f. si. of the, from the, about the
d’ prep. of, from, about
di prep. of, from, about
un bicchiere di vino = a glass of wine
dirsi v. rif. to say to oneself, to say to each other, to call oneself, to style oneself, to claim to be
dirsi is the reflexive (riflessivo) form of the verb dire (to say)
It is made up of two words:
dire (vt.) = to say, to affirm, to assert
si (pron.) = himself, herself, itself, oneself
Loro non hanno niente da dirsi. = They have nothing to say to each other.
dolore sm. si. pain, ache, suffering, distress, sorrow, grief
Miley Cyrus distrutta dal dolore per la morte del suo cucciolo. = Miley Cyrus destroyed by grief at the death of her puppy.
e cong. and
eppure cong. yet, still, but, nevertheless, and yet
mai visto, eppure la riconosco = I had never seen (her) and yet I recognized her.
era vi he was, she was, it was
era is the 3rd person singular imperfect indicative (3° persona singolare dell’indicativo imperfetto) of the verb essere = to be
c’era una volta = There was a time (Once upon a time)
essere vt to be
infinitive (infinito)
ferro sm. iron
l’età del ferro = the Iron Age
fil sm. thread, wire
Guida alla lavorazione del fil di ferro = Guide to working with wire.
filtrare vi. & vt. to filter
infinitive (infinito)
filtrava vi & vt was filtering, filtered
filtrava is the 3rd person singular imperfect indicative (3° persona singolare dell’indicativo imperfetto) of the verb filtrare = to filter
la luce filtrava dalla finestra = the light filtered in through the window
gabbia sf. cage
gentile agg. si. kind, courteous, polite
gentili agg. pl. kind, courteous, polite
gentili is the plural of gentile = kind, courteous, polite
la sua famiglia sono sempre così gentili con me = his family are always so kind to me
gli art m pl the
guardava vi & vt was watching, watched
guardava is the 3rd person singular imperfect indicative (3° persona singolare dell’indicativo imperfetto) of the verb guardare= to watch
L’uomo che guardava passare i treni = The man who watched the trains go by
i art. det. m. pl. the (in front of a masculine noun)
i is the masculine plural definite article (l’articolo determinativo maschile plurale)
i fratelli di Maria sono in questa scuola = Maria’s brothers (the brothers of Maria) are in this school
il art. det. m. si. the (in front of a masculine noun)
il is the masculine singular definite article (l’articolo determinativo maschile singolare)
Il bambino ha la febbre. = The baby has a temperature.
in prep. in, into
la art. det. f. si. the (in front of a feminine noun)
la is the feminine definite article (l’articolo determinativo femminile)
l’alunna a la penna = the pupil has the pen
la pron. f. si. her
la is being used as a direct object (oggetto diretto)
io la vedo = I see her
lagrime sf. pl. tears
lagrime is the plural of the word lagrima (tear).
lagrima/lagrime are old-fashioned versions of the words lacrima/lacrime
con le lacrime agli occhi = with tears in one’s eyes
le pron. f. si. her
le is being used as a indirect object (oggetto indiretto)
Darai il libro a Roberta? Si, le daro il libro. = Will you give the book to Roberta? Yes, I shall give her the book.
li pron. m. pl. them
lume sm. light, lamp
ma cong. but, however
mi piacerebbe venire ma non posso = I would love to come but I can’t
malaticcia agg. f. sickly
malincolia sf. si. melancholy, low-spirits, sadness
Spesso si tende a confondere la malinconia con la tristezza. = Often we tend to confuse melancholy with sadness.
meschinella sf. si. poor little wretch, pathetic little wretch
miche sf. pl. crumbs, grains
Sovente vengono uccelli al davanzale e beccano miche di pane. = Birds often come to the window sill and peck bread crumbs.
nel prep & art in the, into the
nell’ prep. & art. m. s. in the, into the
non avv. not
io non ho = I have not
Franco non ha = Frank has not
o cong. or
occhio sm. eye
osava vt. he dared, she dared, it dared, one dared
era is the 3rd person singular imperfect indicative (3° persona singolare dell’indicativo imperfetto) of the verb osarere = to dare, to venture, to hazard
non osava domandargli= he didn’t dare ask him
pagavano vtr. paid, settled, bought
pagavano is the 3rd person plural imperfect indicative (3° persona plurale dell’indicativo imperfetto) form of the verb pagare = to pay, to settle, to buy
Io ero il pagliaccio e mi pagavano per piangere ridere e cadere. = I was the clown and they paid me to cry, laugh and fall.
pane sm. si. bread
Ho portato un tascapane con vino, formaggio, pomodori e pane. = I brought a haversack with wine, cheese, tomatoes and bread.
parola sf. si. word
parole sf. pl. words
parole is the plural of parola = word
Le belle parole dei saggi e dei poeti di tutto il mondo. = The beautiful words of sages and poets from around the world.
pieno agg. full
un bicchiere pieno d’acqua = A glass full of water
potuto v. could, was able
potuto is the past participle (participio passato) of the verb potere = to be able
ho potuto pagare = I could pay
povera agg f poor, needy, impoverished, destitute, abject, wretched, miserable
prato sm meadow, field, lawn, pasture, grassland
prigioniera sf. si. prisoner, captive
La giovane donna era tenuta prigioniera da sua madre. = The young woman was held prisoner by her mother.
rassegnarsi v. rif. to resign oneself, to submit
rassegnarsi is the infinitive (infinito) form of the verb
ribellarsi v. rif. to rebel, to resist, to oppose, to rise up
ribellarsi is the infinitive (infinito) form of the verb
La gente comincia a ribellarsi! = The people are starting to revolt!
si rifuggiava v. rif. sought refuge, was seeking refuge, took refuge, was taking refuge
si rifuggiava is the 3rd person singular imperfect indicative of the verb rifuggiarsi = to seek refuge, take shelter
La bambina si rifugiava sui ginocchi della nonna. = The little girl took refuge on the knees of his grandmother.
rompere vt. to break, to damage, to crack, to sever, to shatter
rompere is the infinitive (infinito) form of the verb
È possibile rompere un bicchiere con la sola forza della voce? = Is it possible to break a glass with only the force of the voice?
seguiva vi & vt was following, followed
seguiva is the 3rd person singular imperfect indicative (3° persona singolare dell’indicativo imperfetto) of the verb seguire= to follow
L’uomo che seguiva le nuvole. = The man who followed the clouds.
sguardo sm. s. glance, look, gaze, expression
si pron himself, herself, itself
società sf company, firm, corporation, business
spaventato agg m frightened, scared, terrified
storia sf story, tale, history
sua agg. f. si. his, her, its
sua is a possessive adjective (aggettivo possessivo) used with a feminine singular noun
è la sua casa = it is his/her house
sul prep & art on the
suo agg. poss. m. si. his, her, its
suo is a possessive adjective (aggettivo possessivo) used with a masculine singular noun
Dov’è il suo amico? = Where is her friend? or Where is his friend?
suoi agg. m. pl. his, her, its
suoi is a possessive adjective (aggettivo possessivo) used with a masculine plural noun
Rocco e i suoi fratelli = Rocco and his sisters
teneva vt. held, grasped, kept
teneva is the 3rd person singular imperfect indicative (3° persona singolare dell’indicativo imperfetto) form of the verb tenere (to hold)
una donna teneva in casa 18 cani e 65 gatti = a lady kept 18 dogs and 65 cats in her house
tentare vt. to attempt, to try, to experiment, to lure, to tempt
tentare is the infinitive (infinito) form of the verb
tentare un nuovo metodo = to try a new method
timida agg. f. si. timid, demure, bashful, fake, weak, hesitant
trastullarsi v. rif. to amuse oneself
trastullarsi is the infinitive (infinito) form of the verb
si trastullavano v. rif. They amused themselves, they were amusing themselves
si trastullavano is the 3rd person plural imperfect indicative (3° persona plurale dell’indicativo imperfetto) of the reflexive verb trastullarsi = to amuse oneself.
si trastullavano con le droghe e la poesia = they were amusing themselves with drugs and poetry
triste agg. f. & m. sad, glum, melancholy, dismal, depressing,sombre, painful, rueful, wretched
uccelletti nm pl small birds
udiva vt heard
udiva is the 3rd person singular imperfect indicative (3° persona singolare dell’indicativo imperfetto) of the verb udire = to hear
Era la prima parola di compassione che udiva. = It was the first word of compassion that he heard.
un art indet m a, an
una art indet f a, an
uno art indet m a, an
uno is used before a masculine noun beginning with s + a consonant, z, gn, x, y/i + vowel, pn, ps
verde sm green, greenery
visto pp seen
voleva v.t. he, she, it wanted, desired
voleva is the 3rd person singular imperfect indicative (3° persona singolare dell’indicativo imperfetto) form of the verb volere (to want)
Mia madre non voleva lasciarmi andare via a 18 anni. = My mother did not want to to let me go away at 18 years old.
volevano v.t. they wanted, they desired
volevano is the 3rd person plural imperfect indicative (3° persona plurale dell’indicativo imperfetto) form of the verb volere (to want)
I ragazzi volevano porgli una domanda. = The boys wanted to ask him a question.

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A little bit of grammar

Adjective (aggettivo)

An adjective describes a noun or pronoun, adding information: this house is ‘small’, a ‘large’ one.

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Definite article (l’articolo determinavo)

The definite article (‘the’) is usually used to specify a particular noun.

In Italian it has several forms, used according to: the gender, the number and the first letter(s) of the noun to which it is related.

The masculine plural definite article
(l’articolo determinativo maschile plurale)

i is the masculine plural definite article and is used in front of a masculine plural noun:


i muri = the walls

i ragazzi= the boys

The feminine singular definite article
(l’articolo determinativo femminile singolare)


la is the feminine singular definite article and is used in front of a feminine singular noun:

la casa = the house

la sala = the hall

la macchina = the car

la signora = the lady

___________

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Imperfect tense (l’imperfetto)

The imperfect is a past tense used to express what someone was doing or what someone used to do or to describe something in the past. The imperfect refers particularly to something that continued over a period of time, as opposed to something that happened at a specific time.

The imperfect tense (l’imperfetto) is a past tense which expresses unfinished states or actions. It corresponds to four forms of English past tenses: e.g. studiavo = I used to study, I would study, I was studying, I studied.

Indefinite article (l’articolo indeterminavo)

The indefinite article is used in Italian, as in English, for an ‘unspecified’ noun.

It corresponds to English ‘a’ or ‘an’.

The forms of the indefinite article are the same as those of the numeral uno (one):

vuoi un libro? do you want a book?

masculine: un, uno

feminine: una, un’

a) Un

un is used before masculine nouns beginning with a consonant or a vowel:

un libro = a book

un albergo = a hotel

un ragazzo = a boy

b) Uno

uno is used before a masculine noun beginning with s + a consonant, z, gn, x, y/i + vowel, pn, ps

uno sbaglio  = a mistake

uno studente = a student

uno zio = an uncle

uno zabaglione = a zabaglione

uno xilofono = a xylophone

uno yacht = a yacht

c) Una

una is used before feminine nouns beginning with a consonant:

una strada = a street, a road

una ragazza = a girl

una piazza = a square, a plaza, a place

una macchina = a car

una scuola = a school

una religione = a religion

una caramella = a toffee

una is used before feminine nouns beginning with an i + another vowel:

una iugoslava = a Yugoslav woman

d) Un’

un’ is used before feminine nouns beginning with a vowel:

un’arancia = an orange

un’esplosione = an explosion

un’isola = an island

un’occhiata = a glance

un’unità = a unit

un’amica = a friend

N.B. If the indefinite article is separated from the noun by an adjective, the choice of indefinite article will depend on the the first letter(s) of that adjective.

un buono studente = a good student

uno stupido ragazzo = a stupid boy

una bella amica = a beautiful friend

un’altra caramella = another toffee

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Indicative mood (indicativo)

This mood expresses or indicates facts. It has a variety of functions: amongst other things it expresses what is universally the case, what usually happens and what happens now.

The normal mood of a verb as in ‘I like’, ‘he came’, ‘we are trying’ as opposed to subjunctive, conditional and imperative moods.

The indicative mood is the most common and is used to express facts and opinions or to make inquiries. Most of the statements you make or you read will be in the indicative mood.

Infinitive (l’infinitivo)

The infinitive is the basic form of the verb which you will find when you look it up in a dictionary or vocabulary list. It is not a tense, it is the neutral or ‘infinite’ part of the verb, hence its name. It is the equivalent of the English ‘to read’, ‘to listen’ or simply ‘read’ or ‘listen.

Pluperfect tense (il trapassato prossimo)

The pluperfect is used to say what had already happened before another action in the past. Its name means ‘more than perfect, further back in the past’.

It is often recognizable in English by the characteristic ‘had’: I went to meet them, but they had already left.

In Italian the pluperfect is represented by a combination of the imperfect and the past participle.

avevo visto = I had seen

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Abbreviations:

art articolo article
agg aggettivo adjective
art indet articolo indeterminativo indefinite article
avv avverbo adverb
cong congiunzione conjunction
f feminile feminine
indet indeterminativo indefinite
m maschile masculine
ogg oggetto object
ogg diretto oggetto diretto direct object
pl plurale plural
poss possessivo possessive
pp participio passato past participle
prep preposizione preposition
pron pronome pronoun
rif. riflessivo reflexive
s. sostanivo nounr
si. singolare singular
sf. sostinavo feminile feminine noun
sm. sostinavo maschile masculine noun
v. verbo verb
v.i. verbo intransitivo intransitive verb
v. rif. verbo riflessivo reflexive verb
v.t. verbo transitivo transitive verb

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